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Research Projects
Name Cooperated Organizations/Grant Number Period Job
Intelligent IRT Robot and Humans Co-Learning on Education and Learning Applications (1/3) Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 106-3114-E-024-001 2017/06-2018/05 Principal Investigator
Study and Applications on Integrating FML-based Robot Agent and Deep Learning Model Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 106-2221-E-024-019 2017/08-2018/07 Principal Investigator
Study and Construction on Intelligent IRT and Automatic Assembly Ontology Platform (2/3) Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 105-2622-E-024-003-CC2 2016/11-2017/10 Principal Investigator
Semantic Web Technology based on Intelligence 4.0 and Its Application to Social Media Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 105-2221-E-024-017 2016/08-2017/07 Principal Investigator
Computational Intelligence and Decision Making (2/3) Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 105-2911-I-024-501 2016/01-2017/03 Principal Investigator
Intelligent Assessment Agent based on Next-Generation Markup Language and Its Application to Self-Regulated Learning Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 104-2221-E-024-015 2015/08-2016/10 Principal Investigator
Study and Construction on Intelligent IRT and Automatic Assembly Ontology Platform (1/3) Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 104-2622-E-024-005-CC2 2015/11-2016/10 Principal Investigator
Computerized Adaptive Assessment System Construction Kaohsiung City Government 2014/06-2015/12 Principal Investigator
Computational Intelligence and Decision Making (1/3) Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 104-2911-I-024-501 2015/01-2015/12 Principal Investigator
Project for the Implementation of Remedial Instruction Ministry of Education 2015/03-2017/07 Co-Principal Investigator
Study on student learning literacy modeling and assessment/recommendation mechanism based on computational intelligence Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) / MOST 103-2221-E-024-008 2014/08-2015/07 Principal Investigator
Project for the Implementation of Remedial Instruction System Transfer and Remote Backup System Construction Ministry of Education 2014/05-2015/02 Principal Investigator
Project for the Implementation of Remedial Instruction Ministry of Education 2013/02-2015/02 Co-Principal Investigator
Intelligent Decision Making Mechanisms with Hidden Information and Application to Electricity Generation(3/3) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 103-2911-I-024-501 2014/01-2014/12 Principal Investigator
Program of Learning Diagnosis and Progress Assessment for Primary and Secondary Students of Kaohsiung technology-based testing (POLDPA-tbt) Kaohsiung City Government 2013/08-2014/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Study on integrating T2FS with malware analysis platform National Science Council (NSC) / NSC NSC 102-2221-E-024-005 2013/08-2014/07 Principal Investigator
Intelligent Decision Making Mechanisms with Hidden Information and Application to Electricity Generation(2/3) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 102-2911-I-024-501 2013/01-2013/12 Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(A)(4/4) National Science Council (NSC) / 102-2511-S-024-001 2013/01-2013/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(B)(4/4) National Science Council (NSC) / 102-MOE-S-024-001 2013/01-2013/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Adaptive Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology for Intelligent Living Applications Information National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 101-2221-E-024-025 2012/08-2013/07 Principal Investigator
Including Ontology in Monte-Carlo Tree Search with Applications National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 99-2923-E-024-003-MY3 2010/01-2013/04 Principal Investigator
Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology based Intelligent Agent for Healthcare Application National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 98-2221-E-024-009-MY3 2009/08-2012/10 Principal Investigator
Malware Analysis Platform e-Enabling Data Center, Aspire Park, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan 2012/05-2012/10 Principal Investigator
2010 Initiative Research Cooperation among Top Universities between UK and Taiwan: Type-2 Fuzzy Ontology Model and Its Applications National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 99-2911-I-024-004 2010/12-2012/04 Principal Investigator
Visiting Science and Technology Personnel: Dr. Olivier Teytaud National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 100-2811-E-024-001 2011/08-2012/07 Principal Investigator
Intelligent Decision Making Mechanisms with Hidden Information and Application to Electricity Generation(1/3) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 101-2911-I-024-501 2012/01-2012/12 Principal Investigator
After School Alternative Program (ASAP) Ministry of Education 2011/02-2013/01 Co-Principal Investigator
Development and Applications of an Adaptive and Collaborative Learning Environment that Integrate Physical World and Cyber World Resources (3/3) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 100-2631-S-011-003 2011/08-2012/07 Co-Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(A)(3/4) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 101-2511-S-024-003 2012/01-2012/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(B)(3/4) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 101-MOE-S-024-001 2012/01-2012/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(A)(2/4) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 100-2511-S-024-001 2011/01-2012/03 Co-Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(B)(2/4) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 100-MOE-S-024-002 2011/01-2012/03 Co-Principal Investigator
Survey for 15-year-old Taiwanese students on reading, matehmatics, and science: Research on the tendency on the equality of educational opportunity and quality (PISA 2012)(1/4) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 99-2511-S-024-001 2010/01-2011/02 Co-Principal Investigator
Development and Applications of an Adaptive and Collaborative Learning Environment that Integrate Physical World and Cyber World Resources (2/3) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 98-2631-S-024-002 2010/08-2011/07 Co-Principal Investigator
FML-based Intelligent Agent for Domain Ontology Construction and Application National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 99-2622-E-024-003-CC3 2010/11-2011/10 Principal Investigator
After School Alternative Program (ASAP) Ministry of Education 2009/01-2010/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Ontology-based Intelligent Agent for CMMI Knowledge Management National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 97-2221-E-024-011-MY2 2008/08-2010/07 Principal Investigator
Development and Applications of an Adaptive and Collaborative Learning Environment that Integrate Physical World and Cyber World Resources (1/3) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 98-2631-S-024-001 2009/08-2010/07 Co-Principal Investigator
After School Alternative Program (ASAP) Ministry of Education 2007/09-2008/12 Co-Principal Investigator
A Study on Ontology-based Knowledge Management Techniques for CMMI Assessment (II)(III) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 95-2221-E-024-009-MY2 2006/08-2008/07 Principal Investigator
A Study on Dynamic Analysis Model for Personalized Healthcare Institute for Information Industry (III) 2007/05-2007/12 Principal Investigator
Service-Oriented Information Marketplace Sub-Project IV: CMMI Assistant Tools (IV) Ministry of Economic Affairs/National Central University 96-EC-17-A-02-S1-029 2007/01-2007/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Study and Construction for Ontology-based Intelligent Healthcare Web Service National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 95-2221-E-024ˇV010 2006/08-2007/07 Principal Investigator
Service-Oriented Information Marketplace Sub-Project IV: CMMI Assistant Tools (III) Ministry of Economic Affairs/National Central University 95-EC-17-A-02-S1-029 2006/01-2006/12 Co-Principal Investigator
A Study on Automatic Recognition Technology for Respiratory Waveform Institute for Information Industry (III) 2006/03-2006/12 Principal Investigator
A Study on Inference Engine for Smart Home Application Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) 2006/04-2006/07 Principal Investigator
E-Campus Consultation and Assistance Ministry of Education 2006/01-2006/12 Co-Principal Investigator
A Study on Ontology-based Knowledge Management Techniques for CMMI Assessment National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 94-2213-E-024-006 2005/08-2006/07 Principal Investigator
A Study on Construction and Extraction Technology for Heterogonous Healthcare Information Model Institute for Information Industry (III) 2005/03-2005/12 Principal Investigator
Service-Oriented Information Marketplace Sub-Project IV: CMMI Assistant Tools (II) Ministry of Economic Affairs/National Central University 94-EC-17-A-02-S1-029 2005/01-2005/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Integrated Support for Mobile Web Service: Development of Intelligent Classification and Mobile Delivery Web Service (III) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 93-2213-E-024-009 2004/08-2005/12 Principal Investigator
Service-Oriented Information Marketplace Sub-Project IV: CMMI Assistant Tools (I) Ministry of Economic Affairs/National Central University 93-EC-17-A-02-S1-029 2004/01-2004/12 Co-Principal Investigator
A Study on the Text Mining Agent with the Capabilities of Inference and Automatic Learning Institute for Information Industry (III) 2003/05-2003/12 Principal Investigator
Integrated Support for Mobile Web Service: Development of Intelligent Classification and Mobile Delivery Web Service (II) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 92-2213-E-309-005 2003/08-2004/07 Principal Investigator
A Retrieval and Construction Technology for Semantic-based Domain Ontology Institute for Information Industry (III) 2002/05-2002/12 Co-Principal Investigator
Integrated Support for Mobile Web Service: Development of Intelligent Classification and Mobile Delivery Web Service (I) National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 91-2213-E-309-005 2002/08-2003/07 Principal Investigator
XML-based Intelligent Agent National Cheng Kung University / Walsin Lihwa Corp. Center for Research of E-life Digital Technology 2000/08-2003/07 Principal Investigator
R & D Knowledge Management System (II) National Cheng Kung University / Walsin Lihwa Corp. Center for Research of E-life Digital Technology 2001/08-2003/07 Principal Investigator
An intelligent image agent based on PACS system National Science Council (NSC) / NSC 90-2213-E-309-007 2001/08-2002/07 Principal Investigator
Promoting the Education Infrastructure for E-Business: Subproject (IV)-Implement result of "High Efficiency Computing and Communication" course Ministry of Education 2001/09-2004/08 Co-Principal Investigator
A study on the Technology for Automatic Document Classification Institute for Information Industry (III) 2001/04-2001/12 Co-Principal Investigator
R & D Knowledge Management System (I) National Cheng Kung University / Walsin Lihwa Corp. Center for Research of E-life Digital Technology 2000/08-2001/07 Principal Investigator
Intelligent Personal Service System based on Fuzzy Neural Network Ministry of Education 2000/08-2001/07 Principal Investigator
Renting System Construction Kun Shan University 2000/08-2001/07 Principal Investigator
Introduction to the Applications of Domain Ontology
Chang-Shing Lee
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
National University of Tainan, Taiwan
E-mail: leecs@mail.nutn.edu.tw / leecs@cad.csie.ncku.edu.tw
1. Preface
   Recently, the research on the ontology has been spread widely to be critical components in the knowledge management, Semantic Web, business-to-business applications, and several other application areas. In this article, I would like to introduce some applications of domain ontology presented by my research team in Taiwan, including "an ontology-based fuzzy image filter and its application to image processing," "a fuzzy ontology and its application to news summarization," "a genetic fuzzy agent using ontology model for meeting scheduling system," and "an ontology-based intelligent healthcare agent and its application to respiratory waveform recognition."
2. Ontology-based Fuzzy Image Filter and Its Application to Image Processing
   Nowadays, the techniques of image processing have been well developed, but there are still some bottlenecks that have not been solved. For example, many image processing algorithms cannot work well in a noisy environment; therefore, the image filter is adopted as a preprocessing module. The process of image transmission could be corrupted by impulse noise, which causes the corrupted image to be different from the original one. We propose an ontology-based fuzzy image filter to remove additive impulse noise from highly corrupted images. The proposed filter consists of a fuzzy number construction process, a fuzzy filtering process, a genetic learning process, and a noisy ontology. First, the fuzzy number construction process will receive sample images or the noise-free images, then construct a noisy ontology for the fuzzy filtering process. Second, the fuzzy filtering process contains a parallel fuzzy inference mechanism, a fuzzy mean process and a fuzzy decision process to perform the task of noise removal. Finally, based on the genetic algorithm, the genetic learning process will adjust the fuzzy numbers of the noisy ontology. The experimental results show that the ontology-based fuzzy image filter can remove the impulse noise effectively and efficiently.
3. A Fuzzy Ontology and Its Application to News Summarization
   In this section, we introduce a fuzzy ontology and its application to news summarization. The fuzzy ontology with fuzzy concepts is an extension of the domain ontology with crisp concepts. It is more suitable to describe the domain knowledge than domain ontology for solving the uncertainty reasoning problems. In addition, a news agent based on the fuzzy ontology is also developed for news summarization. Fig. 1 shows the process of the fuzzy ontology construction. The news domain ontology with various events is predefined by domain experts. The document preprocessing mechanism will generate the meaningful terms based on the news corpus produced by the retrieval agent and the Chinese news dictionary defined by domain experts. Then the term classifier will classify the meaningful terms according to the events of the news. The fuzzy inference mechanism will generate the membership degrees for each fuzzy concept of the fuzzy ontology. Every fuzzy concept has a set of membership degrees associated with various events of the domain ontology. In addition, a news agent based on the fuzzy ontology is also developed for news summarization. The news agent contains five modules, including a retrieval agent, a document preprocessing mechanism, a sentence path extractor, a sentence generator, and a sentence filter to perform news summarization. The experimental results exhibit that the fuzzy ontology can assist the news agent in summarizing the Chinese news effectively.


Fig. 1. The process of the fuzzy ontology construction [1].

4. A Genetic Fuzzy Agent Using Ontology Model for Meeting Scheduling System
   In this section, we describe the ontology model for the Meeting Scheduling System (MSS). Fig. 2 shows the architecture of ontology-based fuzzy inference mechanism of Genetic Fuzzy Agent (GFA). It is a three-layered network, which can be constructed by directly mapping from a set of specific fuzzy rules, or can be learned incrementally from a set of training patterns.


Fig. 2. The architecture of ontology-based fuzzy inference mechanism of GFA [3].

   The GFA can support a meeting host to select a suitable meeting time for the meeting invitees. Each Fuzzy Personal Ontology (FPO) describes the detailed behavior of each invitee. In addition, the Fuzzy Meeting Scheduling Ontology (FMSO) is utilized for the laboratory members of the department in the university. The experimental results show that the ontology model is useful for the genetic agent and the meeting scheduling systems.
5. Ontology-based Intelligent Healthcare Agent and Its Application to Respiratory Waveform Recognition
   In recent years, the population has been aging gradually, and the number of patients with chronic respiratory disease has grown increasingly; therefore the respiratory healthcare plays an important role in the clinical care. Recently, we present an ontology-based intelligent healthcare agent for the respiratory waveform recognition to assist the medical staff in judging the meaning of the graph reading from ventilators. The intelligent healthcare agent contains three modules, including the respiratory waveform ontology, ontology construction mechanism, and fuzzy recognition agent, to classify the respiratory waveform. The respiratory waveform ontology represents the respiratory domain knowledge, which will be utilized to classify and recognize the respiratory waveform by the intelligent healthcare agent. The ontology construction mechanism will infer the fuzzy numbers of each respiratory waveform from the patient or respiratory waveform repository. Next, the fuzzy recognition agent will classify and recognize the respiratory waveform into different types of respiratory waveforms. Finally, after the confirmation of medical experts, the classified and recognized results are stored in the classified waveform repository. We have constructed a medical testing environment for evaluating the presented method, the simulated results exhibit the ontology-based intelligent healthcare agent can work effectively.
6. Ongoing Research Topics
   As described in this article, we have applied the ontology to various applications, including the domains of image filtering, news summarization, meeting scheduling systems and healthcare agent. We believe that the ontology will play the more and more important role in the Semantic Web in the future. Now, some further projects are ongoing in my research team in Taiwan, for example, the topics of ontology-based knowledge management system for supporting CMMI assessment, ontology-based healthcare agent, and ontology-based fuzzy image processing.
Acknowledgements
   Parts of the research reported in this article were supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under the grants NSC90-2213-E-309-007, NSC91-2213-E-309-005, NSC92-2213-E-309-005, NSC93-2213-E-309-003, and NSC94-2213-E-024-006, the Ministry of Economic Affairs in Taiwan under Grant 93-EC-17-A-02-S1-029, and the Service Web Technology Research Project of Institute for Information Industry and sponsored by MOEA, Taiwan.
Reference
[1] C-S Lee, Z-W Jian, and L-K Huang, "A Fuzzy Ontology and Its Application to News Summarization," (SCI) IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part B, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 859-880, Oct. 2005.

[2] C-S Lee, S-M Guo, and C-Y Hsu, "Genetic-based Fuzzy Image Filter and Its Application to Image Processing," (SCI) IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part B, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 694-711, Aug. 2005.

[3] C-S Lee, C-C Jiang and Tung-Cheng Hsieh, "A Genetic Fuzzy Agent Using Ontology Model for Meeting Scheduling System," (SCI) Information Sciences, 2005. (Accepted)

[4] C-S Lee, Y-H Kuo, C-H Liao, and Z-W Jian, "A Chinese Term Clustering Mechanism for Generating Semantic Concepts of a News Ontology," Journal of Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 277-302, June 2005.

[5] S-M Guo, C-S Lee, and C-Y Hsu, "An Intelligent Image Agent based on Soft-Computing Techniques for Color Image Processing," (SCI) Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 483-494, 2005.

[6] Y-H Kuo, C-S Lee, S-M Guo, and Y-H Chen, "Apply Object-Oriented Technology to Construct Chinese News Ontology on Internet," (EI) Journal of Internet Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 385-394, 2005.

[7] C-S Lee, J-C Du, Z-W Jian, Y-H Kuo, and C-K Hung "Ontology-based Measurement and Analysis Web Service for Supporting CMMI Level 2 Assessment," WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, vol. 1, Issue 6, pp. 1569-1574, Dec. 2004.

[8] C-S Lee and C-Y Pan, "An Intelligent Fuzzy Agent for Meeting Scheduling Decision Support System," (SCI) Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 467-488, 2004.

[9] Y-H Kuo, C-S Lee, S-M Guo, and F-T Tu, "Apply FNN Model to Construct Ontology-based Q&A System," WSEAS Transactions on Communications, vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 328-335, Jan. 2004.

[10] C-S Lee Y-J Chen and Z-W Jian, "Ontology-based Fuzzy Event Extraction Agent for Chinese e-News Summarization," (SCI) Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 431-447, 2003.

[11] C-S Lee, C-P Chen, H-J Chen, and Y-H Kuo, "A Fuzzy Classification Agent for Personal e-News Service," (EI) International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 849-856, Dec. 2002.

Chang-Shing Lee received the B.S. degree in information and computer engineering from the Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, in 1992, and the M.S. degree in computer science and information engineering from the National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, in 1994, and the Ph.D. degree in computer science and information engineering from the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, in 1998.

   From August 2001 to July 2003, he jointed the faculty of the Department of Information Management, Chang Jung Christian University as an Assistant Professor. He became an Associate Professor in the Department of Information Management, Chang Jung Christian University since August 2003. Now he is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National University of Tainan, Taiwan. His research interests include intelligent agent, ontology engineering, knowledge management, Web services, semantic Web, and soft computing systems. He holds several patents on ontology engineering, document classification, and image filtering.

   Dr. Lee received the MOEˇ¦s Campus Software Award in 2002, the CJCUˇ¦s Outstanding Research Achievement Award in 2003, the Outstanding Teacher Award from Chang Jung Christian University in 2004, and the TAAI Advisorˇ¦s Award in 2005. He has guest edited a special issue for Journal of Internet Technology. He is a Member of TAAI.